Proj Inf Perspect. 1997 Nov;(23):19.
Burns. 2003 Dec;29(8):793-7
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Apr;38(4):393-8.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995 Sep;19(9):614-24
Segal S, Cooper J, Bolognia J., Treatment of lipodermatosclerosis with oxandrolone in a patient with Stanazole-induced hepatotoxicity., J Am Acad Dermatol 2000 Sep;43(3):558-9
Demling RH., Oxandrolone, an anabolic steroid enhances the healing of a cutaneous wound in the rat., Wound Repair Regen 2000 Mar-Apr;8(2):97-102
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct;89(10):4863-72.
Demling RH, Orgill DP., The anticatabolic and wound healing effects of the testosterone analog oxandrolone after severe burn injury., J Crit Care 2000 Mar;15(1):12-7
Hart DW, Wolf SE, Ramzy PI, Chinkes DL, Beauford RB, Ferrando AA, Wolfe RR, Herndon DN., Anabolic effects of oxandrolone after severe burn., Ann Surg 2001 Apr;233(4):556-64
Demling RH, DeSanti L., The rate of restoration of body weight after burn injury, using the anabolic agent oxandrolone, is not age dependent., Burns 2001 Feb;27(1):46-51
Demling RH, DeSanti L., Oxandrolone, an anabolic steroid, significantly increases the rate of weight gain in the recovery phase after major burns., J Trauma 1997 Jul;43(1):47-51
Papadimitriou A, Preece MA, Rolland-Cachera MF, Stanhope R., The anabolic steroid oxandrolone increases muscle mass in prepubertal boys with constitutional delay of growth., J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001 Jun;14(6):725-7
Doeker B, Muller-Michaels J, Andler W, Induction of early puberty in a boy after treatment with oxandrolone? Horm Res 1998;50(1):46-8
J Appl Physiol 96: 1055-1062, 2004. First published October 24, 2003; doi:/ 8750-7587/04
James JS., Wasting syndrome: oral oxandrolone re-released in ., AIDS Treat News 1995 Dec 22;(no 237):3-4
Mt Sinai J Med. 1999 May;66(3):201-5.
Involuntary weight loss is a marker of potential problems, and weight restoration is a potential solution. However, the real key diagnostic information is the status of body composition (Table 3 ). Since normal body composition for the individual of concern is not known prior to the insult, a host of normalized tables and equations, with an assumed normal value, are used. Therefore, the actual alteration of body composition caused by an insult or poor nutrition (or usually both) is not known. The complications, for example, the weakness seen in the patient, as well as the presence of a catabolic state that will lead to LBM loss, are often the best clinical markers. Of the available methods (Table 3 ), skin-fold thickness and bioelective impendence are valuable if taken sequentially over time, but some form of baseline is needed; on the other hand, nitrogen balance provides direct information as to whether the patient was catabolic or anabolic on the measurement day, and how catabolic. 22 28
Thalidomide has been used by Brazilian physicians as the drug of choice for the treatment of severe ENL since 1965, and by 1996, at least 33 cases of thalidomide embryopathy were recorded in people born in Brazil after 1965.  Since 1994, the production, dispensing, and prescription of thalidomide have been strictly controlled, requiring women to use two forms of birth control and submit to regular pregnancy tests. Despite this, cases of thalidomide embryopathy continue,   with at least 100 cases identified in Brazil between 2005 and 2010.  million thalidomide pills were distributed throughout Brazil in this time period, largely to poor Brazilians in areas with poor access to healthcare, and these cases have occurred despite the controls.